Part 1- Review of Owen’s Atonement Theory
In this section I review Owen’s view of the Atonement. In particular, I argue that Owen’s conflation of offering and intercession leads him to undermine justification by faith. I caution the reader to not attempt of “fix Owen’s argument for him”, or demand of me explanations of other aspects of passages quoted, or ask “how does this thought fit into an overall atonement theory”. Instead, just focus on understanding what Owen had to say, and if he was correct or not. There will be time explaining the atonement, when I give a positive defense of my own views. Owen’s view of the atonement lead him to unusual interpretations of certain “unlimited atonement” passages, so it’s well worth it to examine what he said about the atonement.
Part 2 – Top 10 Reasons to believe Christ Died for all
This section discusses the reasons to believe the atonement is unlimited. If Owen made some counter-arguments, they are included and addressed. The reasons are primarily based on exegesis, but some are based on systematic theology or even consistency within the Calvinist position. One key argument is that the Calvinist definition of the word “world” is a special pleading. They give “world” a definition that is alien to the New Testament, existing only to get Calvinists off the hook.
Part 3- Refutation of Owen’s arguments against Unlimited Atonement
Owen makes 24 arguments against unlimited Atonement, each of which is dealt with in turn. This section surveys a broad range of passages and scriptural arguments. It gives partial but not full explanations of the atonement. Owen’s key arguments are based on justice and satisfaction, which conflict with justification by faith.
Part 4- Atonement Theory
This section explains the atonement and contrasts an Arminian explanation with Owen’s. Both Owen’s explanation and this one are penal substitution, but whereas Owen’s atonement theory is one step, this one’s two step. The Lamb has been slain and the blood is applied.
Part 5 – Are Arminians Semi-Pelagian?
This section covers J. I. Packer’s misrepresentation of Arminianism and charge of semi-Pelagianism in his introduction to Owen’s book. The Council of Orange condemned semi-Pelagianism and this section demonstrates Arminius’ compliance with the 25 Cannons of Orange.